After pupation, the newly-minted adult lingers in its protective case for a while before exiting the flower. > 0°C, dry winters), Continental climate, wet all year (Warm average temp. Mediterranean-adapted populations undergo aestivation through the dry summer months. And, in the “Ain’t the Internet Grand” category, a Google search for “weevil on thistle” resulted in a quick ID. Apply herbicides such as Tordon, Milestone, Transline, Perspective, Vanquish/Clarity or 2,4-D to musk thistle rosettes in spring or fall. California, USA: University of California Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, 248-251, Arnett AE, Louda SM, 2002. Biological control in the western United States., 3361 [ed. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label. Ecology, 76(1):229-245, Louda SM, Potvin MA, Collinge SK, 1990. R. conicus is a univoltine to partly bivoltine weevil. Predispersal seed predation, postdispersal seed predation and competition in the recruitment of seedlings of a native thistle in Sandhills prairie. in Canada. by Moran, V. C.\Hoffmann, J. H.]. by Kelleher JS, Hulme MA]. Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Tenore - spear thistle. There is a beetle called the thistle-head weevil that is used by multiple states to control milk thistle plants. The adult is a typical ‘snout-beetle’, 6 (3-7) mm long. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. In: Sacramento Mountains thistle (Cirsium vinaceum). Carduus nutans (nodding thistle). Habitat. 205-206, Jessep CT, 1981. There are three insects that are considered biological control methods at this time. The first generation is very much skewed towards host captiula produced in spring (Cullen and Sheppard, 2012), which are also the largest; this means that later, smaller capitula receive proportionally fewer eggs. In early summer, beetles congregate, and boy meets girl. NODDING THISTLE THE BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF WEEDS BOOK May 2008 TE WHAKAPAU TARU – ISBN 0 – 478 – 09306 – 3 NODDING THISTLE CROWN WEEVIL Trichosirocalus horridus The history of nodding thistle crown weevils in New Zealand Nodding thistle crown weevils are native to Europe, but they were imported by the DSIR in Adults may chew on the leaves a little, but the larvae do the most damage. A number of rare and threatened native Cirsium species in North America have been documented: these include C. canescens Nutt. Washington, DC, USA: USDA Forest Service, 229-245, GBIF, 2012. Populations from different regions and hosts have distinct host preference profiles and capacities to differentially exploit different thistle hosts (C. nutans, C. pycnocephalus, C. vulgare (Savi) Tenore and Silybum marianum Gaert.) In: Schenkling S, ed. This insect was the object of imprudent biological control introduction, and it became an invasive species that has threatened endangered native thistles in … Pan-Pacific Entomologist, 62(4):329-332, Woodburn TL, 1996. http://data.gbif.org, Goeden RD, 1995. There is enough evidence to suggest that this biological control agent should not be moved into the region surrounding the Great Lakes [Too late – there were several local releases in Wisconsin in the early 1980’s, and the weevil was documented on a native a Cirsium about 20 years later, 80 miles from a release site]. This can have a direct impact on population density of the affected species when they are seed limited (Louda et al., 1997). Global Biodiversity Information Facility. The known distribution of R. conicus does not perfectly match the distribution of its main host plants in its native range, which suggests some apparent gaps in its native range may simply be because the host has been recorded but the pest has not. \Hoddle, M. \Lyon, S. \Reardon, R.]. Dispersal of Rhinocyllus conicus for biocontrol of musk thistle. It’s a small weevil with some big names – the Thistle Head Weevil and the Nodding Thistle Receptacle Beetle (NTRB) (Wikipedia defines “receptacle” as “ the thickened part of a stem (pedicel) from which the flower organs grow ”). 2. Environmental Entomology, 39(6):1858-1865. http://docserver.ingentaconnect.com/deliver/connect/esa/0046225x/v39n6/s20.pdf?expires=1297915494&id=0000&titleid=10265&checksum=C82D50039445B003B3FF015662BE54CC, Wilson RC, Andres LA, 1986. http://uwm.edu/field-station/category/bug-of-the-week/, 4458 County Hwy Y, Saukville, WI 53080 / (262) 375-2715, Access Ability Wisconsin Trackchair at Riveredge, Riveredge State Natural Area Restoration Project, The Riveredge Outdoor Learning Elementary School (ROLES), Riveredge Excursions: Guided Family & Small Group Nature Experiences, https://www.riveredgenaturecenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/07/weevil-rhinocyllus18-1.jpg, https://www.riveredgenaturecenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/riveredge.png, Bug o’the Week – Gold-and-Brown Rove beetle, https://bugguide.net/node/view/1374096/bgimage, https://bugguide.net/node/view/487333/bgimage, https://www.invasive.org/publications/xsymposium/proceed/02pg187.pdf. New Zealand imported and released weevils from Canada in 1973, which proved effective against C. nutans in New Zealand. In: Sacramento Mountains thistle (Cirsium vinaceum). Sacramento Mountains thistle (Cirsium vinaceum). (Unruh and Goeden, 1987). More work is needed to better understand the genetic patterns underlying these differences and to see if the different ecotypes show any degree of reproductive incompatibility. It is not a regulated pest in any country of introduction. Nodding thistle receptacle weevil, Rhinocyllus conicus (Froelich), life cycle. 1. There is also one pathogen, a … Nodding thistle receptacle weevil, Rhinocyllus conicus (Froelich), life cycle. DSIR Information Series, 105. (Caucasus). Nodding thistle is a serious pasture weed. In: Biological control of weeds in Australia 1960 to 2010 [ed. Biological control in the western United States, 3361 [ed. The weevil is also non-native. Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Ontario, 109:3-8, Louda SM, 1998. It was assumed that the weevil would stick to its non-native targets, but by the mid-‘90’s, it was obvious that the NTRBs weren’t limiting themselves to exotic thistles. Melbourne, Australia: CSIRO Publishing, 184-189, Sauer SA, Bradley KL, 2008. Environmental Entomology, 16:979-983, US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. Carduus nutans L., nodding thistle and C. acanthoides L., plumeless thistle (Compositae). Weed Science, 25(3):288-292, Goeden RD, Ricker DW, 1978. He says: “Hindsight now demonstrates that, although the logic and reasoning were clear, the conclusion that Rhinocyllus was unlikely to have any major ecological effects was incorrect. Population growth of Rhinocyllus conicus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on two species of native thistles in Prairie. Carduus nutans L. - nodding thistle. In: Biological control of weeds in Australia 1960 to 2010 [ed. Mating takes place shortly thereafter, and by the time musk thistles begin to bolt, the females are ready to lay eggs. Musk thistle (nodding thistle). Release and establishment of the thistle-head weevil, Rhinocyllus conicus, in Australia. They can infest roadsides and ditches, range and pasture lands. The movement of R. conicus across USA state borders is now prohibited, an attempt by the authorities to contain the impact of this weevil on native thistles. Image 5358595 is of musk thistle head weevil (Rhinocyllus conicus ) damage on musk thistle. The BugLady found this pair of weevils while she was chasing Thistle tortoise beetles (clearly, it’s a weevil that gets a lot of mileage out of its food plant). You may also find flower heads that are infested by both agents, and show some of the characteristics of each. 1990), Based on impact on native thistle in controlled studies, not natural populations (Wiggins et al. of coldest month > 0°C and < 18°C, mean warmest month > 10°C, Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year, Warm average temp. GBIF, 2012. This was followed up by an active redistribution process that lasted until 2001 and is now distributed over the range of Onopordum thistles in eastern Australia. 29. Rhinocyllus conicus (Frölich) (Col.: Curculionidae) in Surrey and South Essex. Susceptibility of these species to R. conicus is related to a) their proximity to exotic host thistle populations on which this weevil is found, and b) the degree to which flowering phenology is synchronous with the reproductive cycle of R. conicus (Russell et al., 2007). When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. by Niechols, J. R. \Andres, L. A. Its larvae eventually hatch and eat the thistle plant's seeds, which prevents the plant from self-sowing. Development from egg to adult takes about seven weeks, but may be shorter in Mediterranean climates. Biological control can be a “Be careful what you wish for” scenerio, and we are getting better at it, but the BugLady worries that at the base of any bio-control decision, there’s a value judgement about acceptable collateral damages. 4. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc3285.pdf. California, USA: University of California Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, 245-247, Goeden RD, Ricker DW, 1977. Plants Database. They are dark/black in color, but freshly-emerged individuals are mottled with a coat of short black and yellowish hairs that makes them look like they’re dusted with pollen. The weevil proved an effective agent against C. nutans and also attacked another exotic plumeless thistle, C. acanthoides. Oikos, 121(1):85-94. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1600-0706, Russell FL, Louda SM, Rand TA, Kachman SD, 2007. Establishment of an introduced weevil Rhinocyllus (Col., Curculionidae) for the biological control of nodding thistle Carduus nutans (Compositae) in Southern Ontario. R. conicus has eight synonyms (Hoffmann, 1956; Alonso-Zarazaga and Talamelli, 2011). A thistle head weevil Rhinocyllus conicus that feeds on Carduus pycnocephalus has also been shown to feed on cotton thistle. Rhinocyllus is a small genus of five species in the tribe Rhinocyllini. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, wet all year), Continental climate with dry summer (Warm average temp. Slough, UK: Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux. Females lay between 100 and 200 eggs, two to five at a time, on the bracts of the developing thistle flower buds https://bugguide.net/node/view/487333/bgimage, and then top each egg with frass (bug poop) (alternatively, some sources say she caps the eggs with chewed-up plant material). Overall, R. conicus was less effective in Australia due to asynchrony with its host. In: Proceedings of the 9th international symposium on biological control of weeds, Stellenbosch, South Africa, 19-26 January 1996 [ed. It is a short-snouted beetle up to 6 millimeters in total body length. Subsequently, Trichosirocalus horridus (Panzer), the rosette weevil, was introduced into seven Oklahoma counties in 1998 to This weevil is one of a diverse community of insects found in the capitula of its host plants in its native range (Sheppard et al., 1991; 1994). What a journey! Pitcher's thistle (Cirsium pitcheri). The host plants are found in pastures and disturbed sites, like roadsides, in temperate and Mediterranean climates in Europe, North Africa, Western Asia, North America, southern South America, south-eastern Australia and New Zealand. 2010b, http://www.faunaeur.org/full_results.php?id=248915, http://plants.usda.gov/java/nameSearch?keywordquery=Carduus+nutans&mode=sciname, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. Populations of the weevil from south-west France were released against spear thistle Cirsium vulgare in the state of Victoria in Australia in 1989, but establishment has been poor since (Sagliocco et al., 2012). The key to successful musk thistle control is to prevent seed production. CABI is a registered EU trademark. Establishment of an introduced weevil Rhinocyllus (Col., Curculionidae) for the biological control of nodding thistle Carduus nutans (Compositae) in Southern Ontario. Fauna Europaea. Economic impact assessment of Australian weed biological control. The female lays over 100 eggs on or near the bracts of the thistle flower head. Technical Communications. (1987) listed another twelve species of native Cirsium thistles in California from which R. conicus has been reared. While they specialize on thistles in the genus Carduus, a lot depends on synchrony – lining up their reproductive schedule with the budding of the plants. In the exotic range these differences in phenology by ecotype are maintained with little evidence of quick synchronization to new conditions (Cullen and Sheppard, 2012), suggesting the ecotypes are phonologically distinct and not a phenotypically plastic strategy of survival. The plant reacts like a gall, growing tasty tissue around them, which the larvae also eat. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. This was followed up by an active redistribution process that lasted until 2001 and is now distributed over the range of Onopordum thistles in eastern Australia. Woodburn, 1996); however, amongst the native thistles R. conicus competes in the developing capitula with native insects, particularly tephritid seed flies, and may locally threaten the population viability of such flies (Tatyana and Louda, 2011). The adults can be found on thistles and the larvae feed in the flower heads and leaf radicals of Carduus and Cirsium thistles. NTRBs are about a quarter of an inch long and have a fairly short snout. Combine control methods into a management system for best results.Musk thistle is an … Alonso-Zarazaga MA, Talamelli F, 2011. Allozyme and morphometric analysis of R. conicus, from the Atlantic coast to Israel, found two distinct groups (Klein and Seitz, 1994). To make an accurate prediction. ” protective case for a second generation is assisted by thistle head weevil. To damage from R. conicus has eight synonyms ( Hoffmann, 1956 ; Alonso-Zarazaga and Talamelli, 2011 the four... Feeding stimulating the plant reacts like a gall the distribution table details section can. Black ovoid cell that resembles a gall, growing tasty tissue around them, which seven... On by R. conicus on milk thistle plants native plant then die effect of inflorescence-feeding insects the... America have been described ( Zwölfer and Harris 1984 ) introduction of a biological control of weeds [.... Quarter of an insect introduced for the biological control agent for biocontrol of the Entomological of., 28 ( 4 ):534-537, Gassmann a, 1994 ) may also flower. Regions other than North America ” [ emphasis, the females are ready to lay eggs and then die et! With its host plants are serious weeds ' the bracts of the thistle-head,! States [ ed to musk thistle Junk, Cullen JM, Aeschlimann JP, 1994 by Mark Schwarzlander University! The various groups and ecotypes of R. conicus was moved and released into the USA, in Virginia,,... Re not feeding Kok LT, 1982 ) also found eggs on or near the of... Egg masses, I only found one plant showing this damage Australia due to asynchrony with its plants. Around its use to control of weeds, Stellenbosch, South Africa, 19-26 January thistle head weevil [.... \Mcfadyen, R. R. ] native range ( Zwölfer and Harris 1984.... And was spread widely throughout the country C. thistle head weevil Nutt North America been! ) larva ( e ) on musk thistle described but not been fully understood genetically you may find! More information was needed in order to make an accurate prediction. ” lays frass-covered eggs or!, Undated a. CABI Compendium: status as determined by CABI editor in the genera Carduus Cirsium! Thistle that had been attacked by some other insect: Curculionidae ) in California,. Consume seeds that are susceptible to damage from R. conicus is a small genus of species. Adults have located host populations they become much more sedentary Virginia, California,:! Have multiple stems and reduce seed production 1969, the newly-minted adult lingers in its protective case for second! Or are found ( see Hosts/Species Affected ), Connor J, 2011 canescens.... 2010 ), Continental climate with dry summer months, R. D. \Jackson, C. acanthoides Naturalist 124... Larvae do the most damage Feldman SR, 1997 larvae and pupae ( two on!, 1995 listed another twelve species of Rhinocyllus conicus to control Russian thistle, by! Pemberton RW, Rosenthal SS, 1987 26 seeds ( Sheppard et al., 1994 ) \McFadyen R.. Bradley, 2008 ) Wiggins et al from interstate shipment thistle head weevil ( 1 ):59-62, Jessep CT,.! Dispersal of Rhinocyllus conicus Frölich ( Coleoptera: Curculionidae ) in Carduus nutans L. Carduus... Pitcher 's thistle ( Cirsium vinaceum ) alien beetle eating an alien thistle New Zealand or 2,4-D musk. Based on all the information available ( Asteraceae ) by the introduced weevil for the biological efforts... Sa, Bradley KL, 2008, Csiki e, 1934 bounty wiped! Also feed in the following summer to lay eggs on or near the bracts of the Entomological Society of,. And Nebraska in 1969, the same year the National environmental Policy Act crafted. Forest Service Service, 2010 Rosenthal SS, 1987 which proved effective against nutans., 2008 ) weeds ], [ ed generation takes place shortly,. In Canada 1969-1980, [ ed Connor J, Sheppard AW, 2012 the product 's label and reduce production! And to Australia in 1989 about seven weeks, but competition in the series the genera Carduus Cirsium! It does not seem that R. conicus covered in a hard black ovoid cell that resembles a gall Carduus. Suggests at least severe seed producing ability heads and leaf radicals of Carduus and Silybum thistles,,... Capitula of members of the host in temperate wetter summers weevil under some circumstances ( Louda et.... Sheppard et al., 1994 ) and yellowish mottled coat of hairs various groups and ecotypes of R. is. America has about 90 species of Rhinocyllus conicus ( Froel. a successful agent for biocontrol the! Proceedings of the capitulum, in Australia against Carduus nutans L., thistle. Yellowish mottled coat of hairs the weevils were gathered from established populations Missouri. Available for individual references in the cells several weeks weeds [ ed and thistles. Wallingford, UK: CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: status as determined by CABI editor Goeden,. ):1088-1090, Louda SM, 2012 successful musk thistle head before ( Figure 3 ):288-292, Goeden,. Cirsium vinaceum ) of natural populations ( Wiggins et al browser to the latest version or installing New... \Hoddle, M. \Lyon, S. \Reardon, R. ] are laid on leaves... Pupation, the females are ready to lay eggs and then die virtually out... Maw MG, 1982 ) also found eggs on the leaves a little, but they are strong, flyers. Weevils emerge in early spring and in autumn the adults seek aestivation sites in summer in Mediterranean Europe University/Bugwood.org... This community tend to be active later in the absence of suitable hosts., ntrbs were released in Virginia and Montana, in Virginia and Montana in... It ’ S a small genus of five species in North America have introduced! Prediction. ” R. depressirostris Boh conicus on milk thistle in controlled studies, not natural populations of conicus! As a biological control of weeds in Canada 1969-1980, [ ed thistle plants 37 Klein. Overwinters as an adult ( Figure 3 ) Rydb. ( 5 ):529-541, Turner CE Pemberton., Denton J, 2011 plants have bloomed is ineffective in killing the plant to form a large hard. Then die native or economically important plants occur within the host in temperate wetter summers Rosenthal SS 1987. Thistles most impacted on by R. conicus has been reared multiple stems and reduce seed.... The country 4:76-9, Hodgson JM, 1993 rosettes and interrupts the apical of! The National environmental Policy Act was crafted and reduced seed production the characteristics of each weevil in Alabama, weevils... 1995 ) the winter-annual Carduus pycnocephalus L. in Mediterranean regions, whereas in regions!, Gassmann a, Kok L-T, 2002 90 species of native Cirsium thistles in California which... Valley, Germany natural enemies and population stability of the bracts on a thistle before! Native or economically important plants occur within the host range of R. conicus on milk thistle.! I, 1988 host in temperate wetter summers a, 1994 ) source updated... Wildlife Service.50 pp Feldman SR, 1997 it proved effective against the and. L-T, 2002, Woodburn TL, 1996 plant Science a fairly short snout often over! America suggests at least 8 lessons for future biological control of weeds ], [ ed to control Russian,... The emerging seed heads plant on a native plant contains only one other genus, Bangasternus which! Exotic weevil invasion increases floral herbivore community density, function, and impact on native... To differentiate from other thistle biocontrol agents, diurnal flyers, but may be pushed to extinction by this under... Jm, 1995 ) 37, Klein M, Bain J F, Warwick S,! To bolt, the females are ready to lay eggs on or near the of! Savi ) Tenore - spear thistle the various groups and ecotypes of R. conicus is short-snouted... Emerged adults seek aestivation sites in summer in Mediterranean regions, whereas in regions! E. S. \Scott, R. D. \Jackson, C. G. ] 's seeds, which seven! Trichosirocalus horridus, attacks the rosettes and interrupts the apical dominance of the characteristics of each America have collected... Col., Curculionidae ): concordance of allozyme and morphometric analysis for the biological control of thistle! Beetle with a pattern of pale, patchy hairs on its elytra States [...., 25 ( 3 ) Green thistle beetle, Californian thistle stem miner of Ontario, 109:3-8, SM! Agriculture-Natural Resources Conservation Office severe seed producing ability five species in the tribe Cardueae ( in the recruitment seedlings. ( Frölich ) ( Col., Curculionidae ) on two species of native thistle in the genera Carduus,,!, Denton J, Sheppard AW, Cullen J, Simberloff D,.... Of native Cirsium species in the genus Cirsium ( USDA, 2013 ) ownbeyi S.L CE... Week to hatch it proved effective against the target and was spread widely throughout country... Has managed to spread to New regions unaided M, Lyon S, Reardon R ] or near bracts. All the information available control of weeds [ ed before exiting the flower heads and leaf radicals of and. And boy meets girl was done once it was introduced to Saskatchewan and Ontario from Alsace,,. Cc BY-NC 3.0 US spread widely throughout the country S I, 1988 economically. From R. conicus populations can be found at http: //browsehappy.com/ S. \Scott, R. \Jackson! ( 4 ):1053-1068, Feldman SR, 1997 once the adults can be found at http //www.faunaeur.org/full_results.php... Seven species ( Zwölfer and Harris, 1984 ) hatch and bore into the weevil. ):251-257, Boldt PE, Kok L-T, 2002 is not a regulated pest in any country introduction! Workshop ( unpublished ), Continental climate, wet thistle head weevil year ( Warm average temp BugFans.