After pupation, the newly-minted adult lingers in its protective case for a while before exiting the flower. > 0Â°C, dry winters), Continental climate, wet all year (Warm average temp. Mediterranean-adapted populations undergo aestivation through the dry summer months. And, in the “Ain’t the Internet Grand” category, a Google search for “weevil on thistle” resulted in a quick ID. Apply herbicides such as Tordon, Milestone, Transline, Perspective, Vanquish/Clarity or 2,4-D to musk thistle rosettes in spring or fall. California, USA: University of California Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, 248-251, Arnett AE, Louda SM, 2002. Biological control in the western United States., 3361 [ed. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label. Ecology, 76(1):229-245, Louda SM, Potvin MA, Collinge SK, 1990. R. conicus is a univoltine to partly bivoltine weevil. Predispersal seed predation, postdispersal seed predation and competition in the recruitment of seedlings of a native thistle in Sandhills prairie. in Canada. by Moran, V. C.\Hoffmann, J. H.]. by Kelleher JS, Hulme MA]. Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Tenore - spear thistle. There is a beetle called the thistle-head weevil that is used by multiple states to control milk thistle plants. The adult is a typical âsnout-beetleâ, 6 (3-7) mm long. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. In: Sacramento Mountains thistle (Cirsium vinaceum). Carduus nutans (nodding thistle). Habitat. 205-206, Jessep CT, 1981. There are three insects that are considered biological control methods at this time. The first generation is very much skewed towards host captiula produced in spring (Cullen and Sheppard, 2012), which are also the largest; this means that later, smaller capitula receive proportionally fewer eggs. In early summer, beetles congregate, and boy meets girl. NODDING THISTLE THE BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF WEEDS BOOK May 2008 TE WHAKAPAU TARU â ISBN 0 â 478 â 09306 â 3 NODDING THISTLE CROWN WEEVIL Trichosirocalus horridus The history of nodding thistle crown weevils in New Zealand Nodding thistle crown weevils are native to Europe, but they were imported by the DSIR in Adults may chew on the leaves a little, but the larvae do the most damage. A number of rare and threatened native Cirsium species in North America have been documented: these include C. canescens Nutt. Washington, DC, USA: USDA Forest Service, 229-245, GBIF, 2012. Populations from different regions and hosts have distinct host preference profiles and capacities to differentially exploit different thistle hosts (C. nutans, C. pycnocephalus, C. vulgare (Savi) Tenore and Silybum marianum Gaert.) In: Schenkling S, ed. This insect was the object of imprudent biological control introduction, and it became an invasive species that has threatened endangered native thistles in â¦ Pan-Pacific Entomologist, 62(4):329-332, Woodburn TL, 1996. http://data.gbif.org, Goeden RD, 1995. There is enough evidence to suggest that this biological control agent should not be moved into the region surrounding the Great Lakes [Too late – there were several local releases in Wisconsin in the early 1980’s, and the weevil was documented on a native a Cirsium about 20 years later, 80 miles from a release site]. This can have a direct impact on population density of the affected species when they are seed limited (Louda et al., 1997). Global Biodiversity Information Facility. The known distribution of R. conicus does not perfectly match the distribution of its main host plants in its native range, which suggests some apparent gaps in its native range may simply be because the host has been recorded but the pest has not. \Hoddle, M. \Lyon, S. \Reardon, R.]. Dispersal of Rhinocyllus conicus for biocontrol of musk thistle. Itâs a small weevil with some big names â the Thistle Head Weevil and the Nodding Thistle Receptacle Beetle (NTRB) (Wikipedia defines âreceptacleâ as â the thickened part of a stem (pedicel) from which the flower organs grow â). 2. Environmental Entomology, 39(6):1858-1865. http://docserver.ingentaconnect.com/deliver/connect/esa/0046225x/v39n6/s20.pdf?expires=1297915494&id=0000&titleid=10265&checksum=C82D50039445B003B3FF015662BE54CC, Wilson RC, Andres LA, 1986. http://uwm.edu/field-station/category/bug-of-the-week/, 4458 County Hwy Y, Saukville, WI 53080 / (262) 375-2715, Access Ability Wisconsin Trackchair at Riveredge, Riveredge State Natural Area Restoration Project, The Riveredge Outdoor Learning Elementary School (ROLES), Riveredge Excursions: Guided Family & Small Group Nature Experiences, https://www.riveredgenaturecenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/07/weevil-rhinocyllus18-1.jpg, https://www.riveredgenaturecenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/riveredge.png, Bug o’the Week – Gold-and-Brown Rove beetle, https://bugguide.net/node/view/1374096/bgimage, https://bugguide.net/node/view/487333/bgimage, https://www.invasive.org/publications/xsymposium/proceed/02pg187.pdf. New Zealand imported and released weevils from Canada in 1973, which proved effective against C. nutans in New Zealand. In: Sacramento Mountains thistle (Cirsium vinaceum). Sacramento Mountains thistle (Cirsium vinaceum). (Unruh and Goeden, 1987). More work is needed to better understand the genetic patterns underlying these differences and to see if the different ecotypes show any degree of reproductive incompatibility. It is not a regulated pest in any country of introduction. Nodding thistle receptacle weevil, Rhinocyllus conicus (Froelich), life cycle. 1. There is also one pathogen, a â¦ Nodding thistle receptacle weevil, Rhinocyllus conicus (Froelich), life cycle. DSIR Information Series, 105. (Caucasus). Nodding thistle is a serious pasture weed. In: Biological control of weeds in Australia 1960 to 2010 [ed. Biological control in the western United States, 3361 [ed. The weevil is also non-native. Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Ontario, 109:3-8, Louda SM, 1998. It was assumed that the weevil would stick to its non-native targets, but by the mid-‘90’s, it was obvious that the NTRBs weren’t limiting themselves to exotic thistles. Melbourne, Australia: CSIRO Publishing, 184-189, Sauer SA, Bradley KL, 2008. Environmental Entomology, 16:979-983, US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. Carduus nutans L., nodding thistle and C. acanthoides L., plumeless thistle (Compositae). Weed Science, 25(3):288-292, Goeden RD, Ricker DW, 1978. He says: “Hindsight now demonstrates that, although the logic and reasoning were clear, the conclusion that Rhinocyllus was unlikely to have any major ecological effects was incorrect. Population growth of Rhinocyllus conicus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on two species of native thistles in Prairie. Carduus nutans L. - nodding thistle. In: Biological control of weeds in Australia 1960 to 2010 [ed. Mating takes place shortly thereafter, and by the time musk thistles begin to bolt, the females are ready to lay eggs. Musk thistle (nodding thistle). Release and establishment of the thistle-head weevil, Rhinocyllus conicus, in Australia. They can infest roadsides and ditches, range and pasture lands. The movement of R. conicus across USA state borders is now prohibited, an attempt by the authorities to contain the impact of this weevil on native thistles. Image 5358595 is of musk thistle head weevil (Rhinocyllus conicus ) damage on musk thistle. The BugLady found this pair of weevils while she was chasing Thistle tortoise beetles (clearly, it’s a weevil that gets a lot of mileage out of its food plant). You may also find flower heads that are infested by both agents, and show some of the characteristics of each. 1990), Based on impact on native thistle in controlled studies, not natural populations (Wiggins et al. of coldest month > 0Â°C and < 18Â°C, mean warmest month > 10Â°C, Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year, Warm average temp. GBIF, 2012. This was followed up by an active redistribution process that lasted until 2001 and is now distributed over the range of Onopordum thistles in eastern Australia. 29. Rhinocyllus conicus (FrÃ¶lich) (Col.: Curculionidae) in Surrey and South Essex. Susceptibility of these species to R. conicus is related to a) their proximity to exotic host thistle populations on which this weevil is found, and b) the degree to which flowering phenology is synchronous with the reproductive cycle of R. conicus (Russell et al., 2007). When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. by Niechols, J. R. \Andres, L. A. Its larvae eventually hatch and eat the thistle plant's seeds, which prevents the plant from self-sowing. Development from egg to adult takes about seven weeks, but may be shorter in Mediterranean climates. Biological control can be a “Be careful what you wish for” scenerio, and we are getting better at it, but the BugLady worries that at the base of any bio-control decision, there’s a value judgement about acceptable collateral damages. 4. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc3285.pdf. California, USA: University of California Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, 245-247, Goeden RD, Ricker DW, 1977. Plants Database. They are dark/black in color, but freshly-emerged individuals are mottled with a coat of short black and yellowish hairs that makes them look like they’re dusted with pollen. The weevil proved an effective agent against C. nutans and also attacked another exotic plumeless thistle, C. acanthoides. Oikos, 121(1):85-94. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1600-0706, Russell FL, Louda SM, Rand TA, Kachman SD, 2007. Establishment of an introduced weevil Rhinocyllus (Col., Curculionidae) for the biological control of nodding thistle Carduus nutans (Compositae) in Southern Ontario. R. conicus has eight synonyms (Hoffmann, 1956; Alonso-Zarazaga and Talamelli, 2011). A thistle head weevil Rhinocyllus conicus that feeds on Carduus pycnocephalus has also been shown to feed on cotton thistle. Rhinocyllus is a small genus of five species in the tribe Rhinocyllini. > 10Â°C, coldest month < 0Â°C, wet all year), Continental climate with dry summer (Warm average temp. Slough, UK: Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux. Females lay between 100 and 200 eggs, two to five at a time, on the bracts of the developing thistle flower buds https://bugguide.net/node/view/487333/bgimage, and then top each egg with frass (bug poop) (alternatively, some sources say she caps the eggs with chewed-up plant material). Overall, R. conicus was less effective in Australia due to asynchrony with its host. In: Proceedings of the 9th international symposium on biological control of weeds, Stellenbosch, South Africa, 19-26 January 1996 [ed. It is a short-snouted beetle up to 6 millimeters in total body length. Subsequently, Trichosirocalus horridus (Panzer), the rosette weevil, was introduced into seven Oklahoma counties in 1998 to This weevil is one of a diverse community of insects found in the capitula of its host plants in its native range (Sheppard et al., 1991; 1994). What a journey! Pitcher's thistle (Cirsium pitcheri). The host plants are found in pastures and disturbed sites, like roadsides, in temperate and Mediterranean climates in Europe, North Africa, Western Asia, North America, southern South America, south-eastern Australia and New Zealand. 2010b, http://www.faunaeur.org/full_results.php?id=248915, http://plants.usda.gov/java/nameSearch?keywordquery=Carduus+nutans&mode=sciname, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. Populations of the weevil from south-west France were released against spear thistle Cirsium vulgare in the state of Victoria in Australia in 1989, but establishment has been poor since (Sagliocco et al., 2012). The key to successful musk thistle control is to prevent seed production. CABI is a registered EU trademark. Establishment of an introduced weevil Rhinocyllus (Col., Curculionidae) for the biological control of nodding thistle Carduus nutans (Compositae) in Southern Ontario. Fauna Europaea. Economic impact assessment of Australian weed biological control. The female lays over 100 eggs on or near the bracts of the thistle flower head. Technical Communications. (1987) listed another twelve species of native Cirsium thistles in California from which R. conicus has been reared. While they specialize on thistles in the genus Carduus, a lot depends on synchrony – lining up their reproductive schedule with the budding of the plants. In the exotic range these differences in phenology by ecotype are maintained with little evidence of quick synchronization to new conditions (Cullen and Sheppard, 2012), suggesting the ecotypes are phonologically distinct and not a phenotypically plastic strategy of survival. The plant reacts like a gall, growing tasty tissue around them, which the larvae also eat. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. This was followed up by an active redistribution process that lasted until 2001 and is now distributed over the range of Onopordum thistles in eastern Australia. Woodburn, 1996); however, amongst the native thistles R. conicus competes in the developing capitula with native insects, particularly tephritid seed flies, and may locally threaten the population viability of such flies (Tatyana and Louda, 2011). The adults can be found on thistles and the larvae feed in the flower heads and leaf radicals of Carduus and Cirsium thistles. NTRBs are about a quarter of an inch long and have a fairly short snout. Combine control methods into a management system for best results.Musk thistle is an â¦ Alonso-Zarazaga MA, Talamelli F, 2011. Allozyme and morphometric analysis of R. conicus, from the Atlantic coast to Israel, found two distinct groups (Klein and Seitz, 1994). To make an accurate prediction. ” protective case for a second generation is assisted by thistle head weevil. 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